mapie.regression.MapieRegressor

class mapie.regression.MapieRegressor(estimator: Optional[sklearn.base.RegressorMixin] = None, method: str = 'plus', cv: Optional[Union[int, str, sklearn.model_selection._split.BaseCrossValidator]] = None, test_size: Optional[Union[int, float]] = None, n_jobs: Optional[int] = None, agg_function: Optional[str] = 'mean', verbose: int = 0, conformity_score: Optional[mapie.conformity_scores.conformity_scores.ConformityScore] = None, random_state: Optional[Union[int, numpy.random.mtrand.RandomState]] = None)[source]

Prediction interval with out-of-fold conformity scores.

This class implements the jackknife+ strategy and its variations for estimating prediction intervals on single-output data. The idea is to evaluate out-of-fold conformity scores (signed residuals, absolute residuals, residuals normalized by the predicted mean…) on hold-out validation sets and to deduce valid confidence intervals with strong theoretical guarantees.

Parameters
estimator: Optional[RegressorMixin]

Any regressor with scikit-learn API (i.e. with fit and predict methods). If None, estimator defaults to a LinearRegression instance.

By default None.

method: str

Method to choose for prediction interval estimates. Choose among:

  • "naive", based on training set conformity scores,

  • "base", based on validation sets conformity scores,

  • "plus", based on validation conformity scores and testing predictions,

  • "minmax", based on validation conformity scores and testing predictions (min/max among cross-validation clones).

By default "plus".

cv: Optional[Union[int, str, BaseCrossValidator]]

The cross-validation strategy for computing conformity scores. It directly drives the distinction between jackknife and cv variants. Choose among:

  • None, to use the default 5-fold cross-validation

  • integer, to specify the number of folds. If equal to -1, equivalent to sklearn.model_selection.LeaveOneOut().

  • CV splitter: any sklearn.model_selection.BaseCrossValidator Main variants are:

    • sklearn.model_selection.LeaveOneOut (jackknife),

    • sklearn.model_selection.KFold (cross-validation),

    • subsample.Subsample object (bootstrap).

  • "split", does not involve cross-validation but a division of the data into training and calibration subsets. The splitter used is the following: sklearn.model_selection.ShuffleSplit. method parameter is set to "base".

  • "prefit", assumes that estimator has been fitted already, and the method parameter is set to "base". All data provided in the fit method is then used for computing conformity scores only. At prediction time, quantiles of these conformity scores are used to provide a prediction interval with fixed width. The user has to take care manually that data for model fitting and conformity scores estimate are disjoint.

By default None.

test_size: Optional[Union[int, float]]

If float, should be between 0.0 and 1.0 and represent the proportion of the dataset to include in the test split. If int, represents the absolute number of test samples. If None, it will be set to 0.1.

If cv is not "split", test_size is ignored.

By default None.

n_jobs: Optional[int]

Number of jobs for parallel processing using joblib via the “locky” backend. If -1 all CPUs are used. If 1 is given, no parallel computing code is used at all, which is useful for debugging. For n_jobs below -1, (n_cpus + 1 - n_jobs) are used. None is a marker for unset that will be interpreted as n_jobs=1 (sequential execution).

By default None.

agg_function: Optional[str]

Determines how to aggregate predictions from perturbed models, both at training and prediction time.

If None, it is ignored except if cv class is Subsample, in which case an error is raised. If "mean" or "median", returns the mean or median of the predictions computed from the out-of-folds models. Note: if you plan to set the ensemble argument to True in the predict method, you have to specify an aggregation function. Otherwise an error would be raised.

The Jackknife+ interval can be interpreted as an interval around the median prediction, and is guaranteed to lie inside the interval, unlike the single estimator predictions.

When the cross-validation strategy is Subsample (i.e. for the Jackknife+-after-Bootstrap method), this function is also used to aggregate the training set in-sample predictions.

If cv is "prefit" or "split", agg_function is ignored.

By default "mean".

verbose: int

The verbosity level, used with joblib for multiprocessing. The frequency of the messages increases with the verbosity level. If it more than 10, all iterations are reported. Above 50, the output is sent to stdout.

By default 0.

conformity_score: Optional[ConformityScore]

ConformityScore instance. It defines the link between the observed values, the predicted ones and the conformity scores. For instance, the default None value correspondonds to a conformity score which assumes y_obs = y_pred + conformity_score.

  • None, to use the default AbsoluteConformityScore conformity score

  • ConformityScore: any ConformityScore class

By default None.

random_state: Optional[Union[int, RandomState]]

Pseudo random number generator state used for random sampling. Pass an int for reproducible output across multiple function calls.

By default None.

References

Rina Foygel Barber, Emmanuel J. Candès, Aaditya Ramdas, and Ryan J. Tibshirani. “Predictive inference with the jackknife+.” Ann. Statist., 49(1):486-507, February 2021.

Byol Kim, Chen Xu, and Rina Foygel Barber. “Predictive Inference Is Free with the Jackknife+-after-Bootstrap.” 34th Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS 2020).

Examples

>>> import numpy as np
>>> from mapie.regression import MapieRegressor
>>> from sklearn.linear_model import LinearRegression
>>> X_toy = np.array([[0], [1], [2], [3], [4], [5]])
>>> y_toy = np.array([5, 7.5, 9.5, 10.5, 12.5, 15])
>>> clf = LinearRegression().fit(X_toy, y_toy)
>>> mapie_reg = MapieRegressor(estimator=clf, cv="prefit")
>>> mapie_reg = mapie_reg.fit(X_toy, y_toy)
>>> y_pred, y_pis = mapie_reg.predict(X_toy, alpha=0.5)
>>> print(y_pis[:, :, 0])
[[ 4.95714286  5.61428571]
 [ 6.84285714  7.5       ]
 [ 8.72857143  9.38571429]
 [10.61428571 11.27142857]
 [12.5        13.15714286]
 [14.38571429 15.04285714]]
>>> print(y_pred)
[ 5.28571429  7.17142857  9.05714286 10.94285714 12.82857143 14.71428571]
Attributes
valid_methods_: List[str]

List of all valid methods.

estimator_: EnsembleRegressor

Sklearn estimator that handle all that is related to the estimator.

conformity_scores_: ArrayLike of shape (n_samples_train,)

Conformity scores between y_train and y_pred.

n_features_in_: int

Number of features passed to the fit method.

__init__(estimator: Optional[sklearn.base.RegressorMixin] = None, method: str = 'plus', cv: Optional[Union[int, str, sklearn.model_selection._split.BaseCrossValidator]] = None, test_size: Optional[Union[int, float]] = None, n_jobs: Optional[int] = None, agg_function: Optional[str] = 'mean', verbose: int = 0, conformity_score: Optional[mapie.conformity_scores.conformity_scores.ConformityScore] = None, random_state: Optional[Union[int, numpy.random.mtrand.RandomState]] = None) None[source]
fit(X: Union[numpy._typing._array_like._SupportsArray[numpy.dtype[Any]], numpy._typing._nested_sequence._NestedSequence[numpy._typing._array_like._SupportsArray[numpy.dtype[Any]]], bool, int, float, complex, str, bytes, numpy._typing._nested_sequence._NestedSequence[Union[bool, int, float, complex, str, bytes]]], y: Union[numpy._typing._array_like._SupportsArray[numpy.dtype[Any]], numpy._typing._nested_sequence._NestedSequence[numpy._typing._array_like._SupportsArray[numpy.dtype[Any]]], bool, int, float, complex, str, bytes, numpy._typing._nested_sequence._NestedSequence[Union[bool, int, float, complex, str, bytes]]], sample_weight: Optional[Union[numpy._typing._array_like._SupportsArray[numpy.dtype[Any]], numpy._typing._nested_sequence._NestedSequence[numpy._typing._array_like._SupportsArray[numpy.dtype[Any]]], bool, int, float, complex, str, bytes, numpy._typing._nested_sequence._NestedSequence[Union[bool, int, float, complex, str, bytes]]]] = None, groups: Optional[Union[numpy._typing._array_like._SupportsArray[numpy.dtype[Any]], numpy._typing._nested_sequence._NestedSequence[numpy._typing._array_like._SupportsArray[numpy.dtype[Any]]], bool, int, float, complex, str, bytes, numpy._typing._nested_sequence._NestedSequence[Union[bool, int, float, complex, str, bytes]]]] = None, **fit_params) mapie.regression.regression.MapieRegressor[source]

Fit estimator and compute conformity scores used for prediction intervals.

All the types of estimator (single or cross validated ones) are encapsulated under EnsembleRegressor.

Parameters
X: ArrayLike of shape (n_samples, n_features)

Training data.

y: ArrayLike of shape (n_samples,)

Training labels.

sample_weight: Optional[ArrayLike] of shape (n_samples,)

Sample weights for fitting the out-of-fold models. If None, then samples are equally weighted. If some weights are null, their corresponding observations are removed before the fitting process and hence have no conformity scores. If weights are non-uniform, conformity scores are still uniformly weighted.

By default None.

groups: Optional[ArrayLike] of shape (n_samples,)

Group labels for the samples used while splitting the dataset into train/test set. By default None.

**fit_paramsdict

Additional fit parameters.

Returns
MapieRegressor

The model itself.

predict(X: Union[numpy._typing._array_like._SupportsArray[numpy.dtype[Any]], numpy._typing._nested_sequence._NestedSequence[numpy._typing._array_like._SupportsArray[numpy.dtype[Any]]], bool, int, float, complex, str, bytes, numpy._typing._nested_sequence._NestedSequence[Union[bool, int, float, complex, str, bytes]]], ensemble: bool = False, alpha: Optional[Union[float, Iterable[float]]] = None, optimize_beta: bool = False, allow_infinite_bounds: bool = False) Union[numpy.ndarray[Any, numpy.dtype[numpy._typing._array_like._ScalarType_co]], Tuple[numpy.ndarray[Any, numpy.dtype[numpy._typing._array_like._ScalarType_co]], numpy.ndarray[Any, numpy.dtype[numpy._typing._array_like._ScalarType_co]]]][source]

Predict target on new samples with confidence intervals. Conformity scores from the training set and predictions from the model clones are central to the computation. Prediction Intervals for a given alpha are deduced from either

  • quantiles of conformity scores (naive and base methods),

  • quantiles of (predictions +/- conformity scores) (plus method),

  • quantiles of (max/min(predictions) +/- conformity scores) (minmax method).

Parameters
X: ArrayLike of shape (n_samples, n_features)

Test data.

ensemble: bool

Boolean determining whether the predictions are ensembled or not. If False, predictions are those of the model trained on the whole training set. If True, predictions from perturbed models are aggregated by the aggregation function specified in the agg_function attribute.

If cv is "prefit" or "split", ensemble is ignored.

By default False.

alpha: Optional[Union[float, Iterable[float]]]

Can be a float, a list of floats, or a ArrayLike of floats. Between 0 and 1, represents the uncertainty of the confidence interval. Lower alpha produce larger (more conservative) prediction intervals. alpha is the complement of the target coverage level.

By default None.

optimize_beta: bool

Whether to optimize the PIs’ width or not.

By default False.

allow_infinite_bounds: bool

Allow infinite prediction intervals to be produced.

Returns
Union[NDArray, Tuple[NDArray, NDArray]]
  • NDArray of shape (n_samples,) if alpha is None.

  • Tuple[NDArray, NDArray] of shapes (n_samples,) and (n_samples, 2, n_alpha) if alpha is not None.

    • [:, 0, :]: Lower bound of the prediction interval.

    • [:, 1, :]: Upper bound of the prediction interval.

set_fit_request(*, groups: Union[bool, None, str] = '$UNCHANGED$', sample_weight: Union[bool, None, str] = '$UNCHANGED$') mapie.regression.regression.MapieRegressor

Request metadata passed to the fit method.

Note that this method is only relevant if enable_metadata_routing=True (see sklearn.set_config()). Please see User Guide on how the routing mechanism works.

The options for each parameter are:

  • True: metadata is requested, and passed to fit if provided. The request is ignored if metadata is not provided.

  • False: metadata is not requested and the meta-estimator will not pass it to fit.

  • None: metadata is not requested, and the meta-estimator will raise an error if the user provides it.

  • str: metadata should be passed to the meta-estimator with this given alias instead of the original name.

The default (sklearn.utils.metadata_routing.UNCHANGED) retains the existing request. This allows you to change the request for some parameters and not others.

New in version 1.3.

Note

This method is only relevant if this estimator is used as a sub-estimator of a meta-estimator, e.g. used inside a Pipeline. Otherwise it has no effect.

Parameters
groupsstr, True, False, or None, default=sklearn.utils.metadata_routing.UNCHANGED

Metadata routing for groups parameter in fit.

sample_weightstr, True, False, or None, default=sklearn.utils.metadata_routing.UNCHANGED

Metadata routing for sample_weight parameter in fit.

Returns
selfobject

The updated object.

set_predict_request(*, allow_infinite_bounds: Union[bool, None, str] = '$UNCHANGED$', alpha: Union[bool, None, str] = '$UNCHANGED$', ensemble: Union[bool, None, str] = '$UNCHANGED$', optimize_beta: Union[bool, None, str] = '$UNCHANGED$') mapie.regression.regression.MapieRegressor

Request metadata passed to the predict method.

Note that this method is only relevant if enable_metadata_routing=True (see sklearn.set_config()). Please see User Guide on how the routing mechanism works.

The options for each parameter are:

  • True: metadata is requested, and passed to predict if provided. The request is ignored if metadata is not provided.

  • False: metadata is not requested and the meta-estimator will not pass it to predict.

  • None: metadata is not requested, and the meta-estimator will raise an error if the user provides it.

  • str: metadata should be passed to the meta-estimator with this given alias instead of the original name.

The default (sklearn.utils.metadata_routing.UNCHANGED) retains the existing request. This allows you to change the request for some parameters and not others.

New in version 1.3.

Note

This method is only relevant if this estimator is used as a sub-estimator of a meta-estimator, e.g. used inside a Pipeline. Otherwise it has no effect.

Parameters
allow_infinite_boundsstr, True, False, or None, default=sklearn.utils.metadata_routing.UNCHANGED

Metadata routing for allow_infinite_bounds parameter in predict.

alphastr, True, False, or None, default=sklearn.utils.metadata_routing.UNCHANGED

Metadata routing for alpha parameter in predict.

ensemblestr, True, False, or None, default=sklearn.utils.metadata_routing.UNCHANGED

Metadata routing for ensemble parameter in predict.

optimize_betastr, True, False, or None, default=sklearn.utils.metadata_routing.UNCHANGED

Metadata routing for optimize_beta parameter in predict.

Returns
selfobject

The updated object.

set_score_request(*, sample_weight: Union[bool, None, str] = '$UNCHANGED$') mapie.regression.regression.MapieRegressor

Request metadata passed to the score method.

Note that this method is only relevant if enable_metadata_routing=True (see sklearn.set_config()). Please see User Guide on how the routing mechanism works.

The options for each parameter are:

  • True: metadata is requested, and passed to score if provided. The request is ignored if metadata is not provided.

  • False: metadata is not requested and the meta-estimator will not pass it to score.

  • None: metadata is not requested, and the meta-estimator will raise an error if the user provides it.

  • str: metadata should be passed to the meta-estimator with this given alias instead of the original name.

The default (sklearn.utils.metadata_routing.UNCHANGED) retains the existing request. This allows you to change the request for some parameters and not others.

New in version 1.3.

Note

This method is only relevant if this estimator is used as a sub-estimator of a meta-estimator, e.g. used inside a Pipeline. Otherwise it has no effect.

Parameters
sample_weightstr, True, False, or None, default=sklearn.utils.metadata_routing.UNCHANGED

Metadata routing for sample_weight parameter in score.

Returns
selfobject

The updated object.