# Tutorial for regression¶

In this tutorial, we compare the prediction intervals estimated by MAPIE on a simple, one-dimensional, ground truth function

Throughout this tutorial, we will answer the following questions:

• How well do the MAPIE strategies capture the aleatoric uncertainty existing in the data?

• How do the prediction intervals estimated by the resampling strategies evolve for new out-of-distribution data?

• How do the prediction intervals vary between regressor models?

Throughout this tutorial, we estimate the prediction intervals first using a polynomial function, and then using a boosting model, and a simple neural network.

For practical problems, we advise using the faster CV+ strategies. For conservative prediction interval estimates, you can alternatively use the CV-minmax strategies.

## 1. Estimating the aleatoric uncertainty of homoscedastic noisy data¶

Let’s start by defining the function and another simple function that generates one-dimensional data with normal noise uniformely in a given interval.

import numpy as np
def x_sinx(x):
"""One-dimensional x*sin(x) function."""
return x*np.sin(x)

def get_1d_data_with_constant_noise(funct, min_x, max_x, n_samples, noise):
"""
Generate 1D noisy data uniformely from the given function
and standard deviation for the noise.
"""
np.random.seed(59)
X_train = np.linspace(min_x, max_x, n_samples)
np.random.shuffle(X_train)
X_test = np.linspace(min_x, max_x, n_samples*5)
y_train, y_mesh, y_test = funct(X_train), funct(X_test), funct(X_test)
y_train += np.random.normal(0, noise, y_train.shape[0])
y_test += np.random.normal(0, noise, y_test.shape[0])
return X_train.reshape(-1, 1), y_train, X_test.reshape(-1, 1), y_test, y_mesh


We first generate noisy one-dimensional data uniformely on an interval. Here, the noise is considered as homoscedastic, since it remains constant over .

min_x, max_x, n_samples, noise = -5, 5, 100, 0.5
X_train, y_train, X_test, y_test, y_mesh = get_1d_data_with_constant_noise(
x_sinx, min_x, max_x, n_samples, noise
)


Let’s visualize our noisy function.

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
plt.xlabel("x") ; plt.ylabel("y")
plt.scatter(X_train, y_train, color="C0")
_ = plt.plot(X_test, y_mesh, color="C1")


As mentioned previously, we fit our training data with a simple polynomial function. Here, we choose a degree equal to 10 so the function is able to perfectly fit .

from sklearn.preprocessing import PolynomialFeatures
from sklearn.linear_model import LinearRegression
from sklearn.pipeline import Pipeline

degree_polyn = 10
polyn_model = Pipeline(
[
("poly", PolynomialFeatures(degree=degree_polyn)),
("linear", LinearRegression())
]
)


We then estimate the prediction intervals for all the strategies very easily with a fit and predict process. The prediction interval’s lower and upper bounds are then saved in a DataFrame. Here, we set an alpha value of 0.05 in order to obtain a 95% confidence for our prediction intervals.

from typing import Union
from typing_extensions import TypedDict
from mapie.regression import MapieRegressor
from mapie.subsample import Subsample
Params = TypedDict("Params", {"method": str, "cv": Union[int, Subsample]})
STRATEGIES = {
"naive": Params(method="naive"),
"jackknife": Params(method="base", cv=-1),
"jackknife_plus": Params(method="plus", cv=-1),
"jackknife_minmax": Params(method="minmax", cv=-1),
"cv": Params(method="base", cv=10),
"cv_plus": Params(method="plus", cv=10),
"cv_minmax": Params(method="minmax", cv=10),
"jackknife_plus_ab": Params(method="plus", cv=Subsample(n_resamplings=50)),
"jackknife_minmax_ab": Params(method="minmax", cv=Subsample(n_resamplings=50)),
}
y_pred, y_pis = {}, {}
for strategy, params in STRATEGIES.items():
mapie = MapieRegressor(polyn_model, **params)
mapie.fit(X_train, y_train)
y_pred[strategy], y_pis[strategy] = mapie.predict(X_test, alpha=0.05)


Let’s now compare the confidence intervals with the predicted intervals with obtained by the Jackknife+, Jackknife-minmax, CV+, CV-minmax, Jackknife+-after-Boostrap, and Jackknife-minmax-after-Bootstrap strategies. Note that for the Jackknife-after-Bootstrap method, we call the :class:mapie.subsample.Subsample object that allows us to train bootstrapped models.

def plot_1d_data(
X_train,
y_train,
X_test,
y_test,
y_sigma,
y_pred,
y_pred_low,
y_pred_up,
ax=None,
title=None
):
ax.set_xlabel("x") ; ax.set_ylabel("y")
ax.fill_between(X_test, y_pred_low, y_pred_up, alpha=0.3)
ax.scatter(X_train, y_train, color="red", alpha=0.3, label="Training data")
ax.plot(X_test, y_test, color="gray", label="True confidence intervals")
ax.plot(X_test, y_test - y_sigma, color="gray", ls="--")
ax.plot(X_test, y_test + y_sigma, color="gray", ls="--")
ax.plot(X_test, y_pred, color="blue", alpha=0.5, label="Prediction intervals")
if title is not None:
ax.set_title(title)
ax.legend()

strategies = ["jackknife_plus", "jackknife_minmax" , "cv_plus", "cv_minmax", "jackknife_plus_ab", "jackknife_minmax_ab"]
n_figs = len(strategies)
fig, axs = plt.subplots(3, 2, figsize=(9, 13))
coords = [axs[0, 0], axs[0, 1], axs[1, 0], axs[1, 1], axs[2, 0], axs[2, 1]]
for strategy, coord in zip(strategies, coords):
plot_1d_data(
X_train.ravel(),
y_train.ravel(),
X_test.ravel(),
y_mesh.ravel(),
1.96*noise,
y_pred[strategy].ravel(),
y_pis[strategy][:, 0, 0].ravel(),
y_pis[strategy][:, 1, 0].ravel(),
ax=coord,
title=strategy
)


At first glance, the four strategies give similar results and the prediction intervals are very close to the true confidence intervals. Let’s confirm this by comparing the prediction interval widths over between all strategies.

fig, ax = plt.subplots(1, 1, figsize=(7, 5))
ax.axhline(1.96*2*noise, ls="--", color="k", label="True width")
for strategy in STRATEGIES:
ax.plot(X_test, y_pis[strategy][:, 1, 0] - y_pis[strategy][:, 0, 0], label=strategy)
ax.set_xlabel("x")
ax.set_ylabel("Prediction Interval Width")
_ = ax.legend(fontsize=10, loc=[1, 0.4])


As expected, the prediction intervals estimated by the Naive method are slightly too narrow. The Jackknife, Jackknife+, CV, CV+, JaB, and J+aB give similar widths that are very close to the true width. On the other hand, the widths estimated by Jackknife-minmax and CV-minmax are slightly too wide. Note that the widths given by the Naive, Jackknife, and CV strategies are constant because there is a single model used for prediction, perturbed models are ignored at prediction time.

Let’s now compare the effective coverage, namely the fraction of test points whose true values lie within the prediction intervals, given by the different strategies.

import pandas as pd
from mapie.metrics import regression_coverage_score
pd.DataFrame([
[
regression_coverage_score(
y_test, y_pis[strategy][:, 0, 0], y_pis[strategy][:, 1, 0]
),
(
y_pis[strategy][:, 1, 0] - y_pis[strategy][:, 0, 0]
).mean()
] for strategy in STRATEGIES
], index=STRATEGIES, columns=["Coverage", "Width average"]).round(2)

Coverage Width average
naive 0.94 2.00
jackknife 0.97 2.38
jackknife_plus 0.97 2.36
jackknife_minmax 0.98 2.53
cv 0.98 2.42
cv_plus 0.97 2.34
cv_minmax 0.98 2.62
jackknife_plus_ab 0.98 2.40
jackknife_minmax_ab 0.98 2.51

All strategies except the Naive one give effective coverage close to the expected 0.95 value (recall that alpha = 0.05), confirming the theoretical garantees.

## 2. Estimating the epistemic uncertainty of out-of-distribution data¶

Let’s now consider one-dimensional data without noise, but normally distributed. The goal is to explore how the prediction intervals evolve for new data that lie outside the distribution of the training data in order to see how the strategies can capture the epistemic uncertainty. For a comparison of the epistemic and aleatoric uncertainties, please have a look at this source.

Lets” start by generating and showing the data.

def get_1d_data_with_normal_distrib(funct, mu, sigma, n_samples, noise):
"""
Generate noisy 1D data with normal distribution from given function
and noise standard deviation.
"""
np.random.seed(59)
X_train = np.random.normal(mu, sigma, n_samples)
X_test = np.arange(mu-4*sigma, mu+4*sigma, sigma/20.)
y_train, y_mesh, y_test = funct(X_train), funct(X_test), funct(X_test)
y_train += np.random.normal(0, noise, y_train.shape[0])
y_test += np.random.normal(0, noise, y_test.shape[0])
return X_train.reshape(-1, 1), y_train, X_test.reshape(-1, 1), y_test, y_mesh

mu = 0 ; sigma = 2 ; n_samples = 300 ; noise = 0.
X_train, y_train, X_test, y_test, y_mesh = get_1d_data_with_normal_distrib(
x_sinx, mu, sigma, n_samples, noise
)

plt.xlabel("x") ; plt.ylabel("y")
plt.scatter(X_train, y_train, color="C0")
_ = plt.plot(X_test, y_test, color="C1")


As before, we estimate the prediction intervals using a polynomial function of degree 10 and show the results for the Jackknife+ and CV+ strategies.

Params = TypedDict("Params", {"method": str, "cv": Union[int, Subsample]})
STRATEGIES = {
"naive": Params(method="naive"),
"jackknife": Params(method="base", cv=-1),
"jackknife_plus": Params(method="plus", cv=-1),
"jackknife_minmax": Params(method="minmax", cv=-1),
"cv": Params(method="base", cv=10),
"cv_plus": Params(method="plus", cv=10),
"cv_minmax": Params(method="minmax", cv=10),
"jackknife_plus_ab": Params(method="plus", cv=Subsample(n_resamplings=50)),
"jackknife_minmax_ab": Params(method="minmax", cv=Subsample(n_resamplings=50)),
}
y_pred, y_pis = {}, {}
for strategy, params in STRATEGIES.items():
mapie = MapieRegressor(polyn_model, **params)
mapie.fit(X_train, y_train)
y_pred[strategy], y_pis[strategy] = mapie.predict(X_test, alpha=0.05)

strategies = ["jackknife_plus", "jackknife_minmax" , "cv_plus", "cv_minmax", "jackknife_plus_ab", "jackknife_minmax_ab"]
n_figs = len(strategies)
fig, axs = plt.subplots(3, 2, figsize=(9, 13))
coords = [axs[0, 0], axs[0, 1], axs[1, 0], axs[1, 1], axs[2, 0], axs[2, 1]]
for strategy, coord in zip(strategies, coords):
plot_1d_data(
X_train.ravel(),
y_train.ravel(),
X_test.ravel(),
y_mesh.ravel(),
1.96*noise,
y_pred[strategy].ravel(),
y_pis[strategy][:, 0, :].ravel(),
y_pis[strategy][:, 1, :].ravel(),
ax=coord,
title=strategy
)


At first glance, our polynomial function does not give accurate predictions with respect to the true function when . The prediction intervals estimated with the Jackknife+ do not seem to increase significantly, unlike the CV+ method whose prediction intervals capture a high uncertainty when .

Let’s now compare the prediction interval widths between all strategies.

fig, ax = plt.subplots(1, 1, figsize=(7, 5))
ax.set_yscale("log")
for strategy in STRATEGIES:
ax.plot(X_test, y_pis[strategy][:, 1, 0] - y_pis[strategy][:, 0, 0], label=strategy)
ax.set_xlabel("x")
ax.set_ylabel("Prediction Interval Width")
ax.legend(fontsize=10, loc=[1, 0.4]);


The prediction interval widths start to increase exponentially for for the Jackknife-minmax, CV+, and CV-minmax strategies. On the other hand, the prediction intervals estimated by Jackknife+ remain roughly constant until before increasing.

pd.DataFrame([
[
regression_coverage_score(
y_test, y_pis[strategy][:, 0, 0], y_pis[strategy][:, 1, 0]
),
(
y_pis[strategy][:, 1, 0] - y_pis[strategy][:, 0, 0]
).mean()
] for strategy in STRATEGIES
], index=STRATEGIES, columns=["Coverage", "Width average"]).round(3)

Coverage Width average
naive 0.494 0.009
jackknife 0.531 0.012
jackknife_plus 0.531 0.037
jackknife_minmax 0.856 9.785
cv 0.519 0.011
cv_plus 0.812 9.800
cv_minmax 0.862 9.805
jackknife_plus_ab 0.725 5.115
jackknife_minmax_ab 0.869 12.618

In conclusion, the Jackknife-minmax, CV+, CV-minmax, or Jackknife-minmax-ab strategies are more conservative than the Jackknife+ strategy, and tend to result in more reliable coverages for out-of-distribution data. It is therefore advised to use the three former strategies for predictions with new out-of-distribution data. Note however that there are no theoretical guarantees on the coverage level for out-of-distribution data.

## 3. Estimating the uncertainty with different sklearn-compatible regressors¶

MAPIE can be used with any kind of sklearn-compatible regressor. Here, we illustrate this by comparing the prediction intervals estimated by the CV+ method using different models:

• the same polynomial function as before.

• a XGBoost model using the Scikit-learn API.

• a simple neural network, a Multilayer Perceptron with three dense layers, using the KerasRegressor wrapper.

Once again, let’s use our noisy one-dimensional data obtained from a uniform distribution.

min_x, max_x, n_samples, noise = -5, 5, 100, 0.5
X_train, y_train, X_test, y_test, y_mesh = get_1d_data_with_constant_noise(
x_sinx, min_x, max_x, n_samples, noise
)

plt.xlabel("x") ; plt.ylabel("y")
plt.plot(X_test, y_mesh, color="C1")
_ = plt.scatter(X_train, y_train)


Let’s then define the models. The boosing model considers 100 shallow trees with a max depth of 2 while the Multilayer Perceptron has two hidden dense layers with 20 neurons each followed by a relu activation.

from tensorflow.keras import Sequential
from tensorflow.keras.layers import Dense
from scikeras.wrappers import KerasRegressor
def mlp():
"""
Two-layer MLP model
"""
model = Sequential([
Dense(units=20, input_shape=(1,), activation="relu"),
Dense(units=20, activation="relu"),
Dense(units=1)
])
return model

polyn_model = Pipeline(
[
("poly", PolynomialFeatures(degree=degree_polyn)),
("linear", LinearRegression(fit_intercept=False))
]
)

from xgboost import XGBRegressor
xgb_model = XGBRegressor(
max_depth=2,
n_estimators=100,
tree_method="hist",
random_state=59,
learning_rate=0.1,
verbosity=0,
)
mlp_model = KerasRegressor(
build_fn=mlp,
epochs=500,
verbose=0
)


Let’s now use MAPIE to estimate the prediction intervals using the CV+ method and compare their prediction interval.

models = [polyn_model, xgb_model, mlp_model]
model_names = ["polyn", "xgb", "mlp"]
prediction_interval = {}
for name, model in zip(model_names, models):
mapie = MapieRegressor(model, method="plus", cv=5)
mapie.fit(X_train, y_train)
y_pred[name], y_pis[name] = mapie.predict(X_test, alpha=0.05)

fig, axs = plt.subplots(1, 3, figsize=(20, 6))
for name, ax in zip(model_names, axs):
plot_1d_data(
X_train.ravel(),
y_train.ravel(),
X_test.ravel(),
y_mesh.ravel(),
1.96*noise,
y_pred[name].ravel(),
y_pis[name][:, 0, 0].ravel(),
y_pis[name][:, 1, 0].ravel(),
ax=ax,
title=name
)

fig, ax = plt.subplots(1, 1, figsize=(7, 5))
for name in model_names:
ax.plot(X_test, y_pis[name][:, 1, 0] - y_pis[name][:, 0, 0])
ax.axhline(1.96*2*noise, ls="--", color="k")
ax.set_xlabel("x")
ax.set_ylabel("Prediction Interval Width")
ax.legend(model_names + ["True width"], fontsize=8);


As expected with the CV+ method, the prediction intervals are a bit conservative since they are slightly wider than the true intervals. However, the CV+ method on the three models gives very promising results since the prediction intervals closely follow the true intervals with .